PRONUNCIATION: (puh-nuhl-tuh-MAY-tuhm)

MEANING: noun: A demand made before an ultimatum.

ETYMOLOGY: From Latin paene (almost) + ultimus (last). Earliest documented use: 1791.

HENULTIMATUM - If my cage isn't bigger by tomorrow you're never going to see another egg...

PENULTIMATIUM - the next-to-the-last element on the periodic table

PENALTIMATUM - one more episode of unsportsmanlike conduct and you're outa the game!