MEANING: noun: Extreme optimism, even under most hopeless circumstances.

ETYMOLOGY: After Mark Tapley, a character in Charles Dickens’s Martin Chuzzlewit (1843-44). Earliest documented use: 1857.

NOTES: The mission of Mark Tapley is to remain “jolly” under all circumstances. It is tested when he accompanies his boss Martin Chuzzlewit on a trip to America and comes down with malaria while living in a swamp. When asked how he’s doing, he responds: “Floored for the present, sir, but jolly!” Other examples of words coined after characters from the same book are pecksniffian and gamp.

"TABLE Y"-ISM - belief that one is always placed at the end of the list

STAPLEY-ISM - belief that one is always left hanging by a thin wire

TALLEY-ISM - government by consensus ("Them's my views, and if you don't like 'em, I'll change them")