3trat#ed, 3trat#ing 5< L impetratus, pp. of impetrare, to accomplish < in3, intens. + patrare, to accomplish < pater, FATHER6
1 to get by request or entreaty
2 [Rare] to implore; ask for
1 to shut up (an animal) in a pound
2 to take and hold (a document, funds, a vehicle, etc.) in legal custody
3 to gather and enclose (water) for irrigation, etc.
And a pond is water that has been impounded.
3cat#ed, 3cat#ing 5< L imprecatus, pp. of imprecari, to invoke, pray to < in3, in, on + precari, to PRAY6
1 to pray for or invoke (evil, a curse, etc.) !to imprecate disaster upon one's foe"
2 [Rare] to invoke evil upon; curse
Quintilian observed nearly two thousand years ago that improvisation is the flower of the rhetorical arts (X.vii.1). And yet, as
literary critics have well documented, woman writers in the nineteenth century used the figure of the extemporizing woman --
the improvisatrice -- to differentiate feminine textual ephemera from the substantial product of manly writing. While these
earlier studies primarily have focused on the relation of the improvisatrice to the woman artist, however, this essay concerns
itself with such improvisation as a rhetorical art. That is, in these distinctions of composition processes on the basis of gender
ideologies, creators of improvisatrices revised the period's dominant rhetorical theory and thereby contributed to the history
of women's rhetoric. Specifically, when contextualized to the two most influential rhetorical treatises of nineteenth-century
England -- George Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric (1776) and Hugh Blair's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres
(1784) -- the improvisatrice tradition makes visible a rhetorical system that mediates between the public realm concerning
the discipline of Rhetoric and the private sphere to which Anglo woman's discourses were popularly assigned.
Interrogating the rhetorical underpinnings of an improvisatrice text such as Letitia Landon's poem "A History of the Lyre"
(1828), for example, not only reveals the way in which such representations of the woman orator revise concepts
foundational to the discipline of Rhetoric but also challenges contemporary rhetoricians to broaden the scholarly gaze to
include texts that fall outside those non-fictional genres that traditionally comprise the field of Rhetoric.
Ethnology-Language: Ipai-Tipai (Kumeyaay)
County: San Diego
Location: Within the boundaries of the Cleveland National Forest, southwest of Julian, off Highway 78 and at
the junction of Eagle Peak, Engineer and Bolder Creek Roads.