Balanoposthitis is the inflammation of the glans penis and the foreskin in uncircumsized males. The word was coined from two roots and an affix: Gk βαλανος (balanos; cf. L glans, glandis, Russian жёлудь (zhjolud') 'acorn; glans penis' fr. PIE *gwel- 'oak'), Gk ποσθη (posthe) 'membrum virile; prepuce', -itis ISV 'inflammation of'. May be caused by phimosis, or an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans. Phimosis is from Gk φιμωσις (phimosis) 'muzzling, silencing; stopping up of an orifice; contraction of the prepuce' fr φιμος (phimos) 'muzzle'.

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